California (USA)

AB 1964, enrolled September 5, 2012.

Existing law, the California Fair Employment and Housing Act, protects and safeguards the right and opportunity of all persons to seek, obtain, and hold employment without discrimination or abridgment on account of race, religious creed, color, national origin, ancestry, physical disability, mental disability, medical condition, genetic information, marital status, sex, gender, gender identity, gender expression, age, or sexual orientation. Specifically, an employer or other covered entity is required to reasonably accommodate the religious belief or observance of an individual unless the accommodation would be an undue hardship on the conduct of the business of the employer or other entity.

This bill would include a religious dress practice or a religious grooming practice as a belief or observance covered by the protections against religious discrimination, and would specify that an accommodation of an individual’s religious dress practice or religious grooming practice that would require that person to be segregated from the public or other employees is not a reasonable accommodation. This bill would further provide that no accommodation is required if an accommodation would result in the violation of specified laws protecting civil rights.

This bill would incorporate additional changes in Section 12926 of the Government Code, proposed by AB 2386, to be operative only if AB 2386 and this bill are both chaptered and become effective January 1, 2013, and this bill is chaptered last.

“Sex” includes, but is not limited to, pregnancy, childbirth, or medical conditions related to pregnancy or childbirth. “Sex” also includes, but is not limited to, a person’s gender. “Gender” means sex, and includes a person’s gender identity and gender expression. “Gender expression” means a person’s gender-related appearance and behavior whether or not stereotypically associated with the person’s assigned sex at birth.

“Sex” also includes, but is not limited to, a person’s gender. “Gender” means sex, and includes a person’s gender identity and gender expression. “Gender expression” means a person’s gender-related appearance and behavior whether or not stereotypically associated with the person’s assigned sex at birth.


Four transsexuals challenged an Islamic law barring men from dressing or behaving as women in Malaysia. The landmark case was heard on Thursday at the Seremban high court, just south of Kuala Lumpur, where the four claimed the Sharia law of the state of Negeri Sembilan infringed on their rights enshrined in the federal constitution.

Homosexuality and transsexual lifestyles remain taboo and are considered a social and moral ill by many in Malaysia, where sodomy is punishable by up to 20 years in prison. The plaintiffs have previously been arrested under Section 66 of the Syariah Criminal (Negeri Sembilan) Enactment, which bars Muslim men from dressing or posing as women, with Juzaili and Shukor currently facing charges in court.

The constitution states that “no person shall be deprived of his life or personal liberty”, bars discrimination on the grounds “of religion, race, descent, place of birth or gender” (see page 27) and protects freedom of expression.

Source and source.

Court information.

Legal Brief.

Williams v. Frymire (Kentucky, USA)

Williams v. Frymire

NO. 2011-CA-001568-ME

(Ky. Ct. App. August 30, 2012)

SUMMARY: Court modifies custody based on mother’s decision to pursue a diagnosis of gender identity disorder for her daughter and rename her after a Power Ranger, despite a lack of medical evidence supporting such diagnosis, after mother watched a television program on gender identity disorder.

Linda Williams and David Frymire were married and had a daughter, Jessica. Linda obtained full custody, but David subsequently filed a motion requesting modification of custody or timesharing, for modification of child support, and for restricted visitation. At this time, Jessica was five years old.  David based his motion on Linda’s e-mail communication sent on November 29, 2010, in which she announced that Jessica was transgender and would from then on be considered a boy, wear boy clothing, and be called Bridge.

Rename your daughter after me.

Continue reading “Williams v. Frymire (Kentucky, USA)”

Jackson City, Michigan (USA)

Bill not currently available.

See here and here for more information.

According to Equality Michigan, the Jackson City ordinance will mirror the City of Kalamazoo’s language. Kalamazoo uses the following definition of “gender identity:” A person’s actual or perceived gender, including a person’s self-image, appearance, expression, or behavior, whether or not that self-image, appearance, expression, or behavior is different from that traditionally associated with the person’s biological sex as assigned at birth as being either female or male.

Springfield, Missouri (USA)

Gender identity means the gender-related identity, appearance, or mannerisms or other gender-related characteristics of an individual, with or without regard to the individual’s designated sex at birth.

Current law does not define sex.

Proposed language for public accommodations (not defined):

It shall be unlawful for any person offering for a consideration services, public accommodations or passenger transportation, or for the agent, operator or manager of such person, to refuse, withhold from or deny to any person such services, public accommodations or passenger transportation for any reason, directly or indirectly, related to the age, race, creed, color, sex, religion, ancestry, national origin, or disability, sexual orientation or gender identity of such person. However, nothing contained in this section shall be construed to prohibit any person from having a special event such as women’s bowling night, men’s bowling night, women’s or men’s bridge night, or other similar events which limit the event or activity to individuals of a particular sex, except such special events shall not occur on a regular basis so as to defeat the intent of this section.

Proposed ordinance.

Proposed ordinance tabled August 28, 2012.

Mayor: ‘Cooling Down’ Period Before Developing Nondiscrimination Task Force